Persuasive essay topics

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For instance, if the persuasive essay is about abortion, the writing professional could begin by arguing in the first paragraph that no matter what steps are taken, there would always be unwanted pregnancies and abortions. The next point would be to persuade the reader that abortions are dangerous such that the aborting woman could actually lose her life while undergoing this process. In the third paragraph, the writer could decide to argue that women require sterile, safe medical environments where they can do their abortions without endangering their lives. The other paragraph could argue that women should never be forced to raise unwanted children before the conclusion paragraph is written.

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Theorist Cook Summary

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A. Name of theorist
The name of the theorist evaluated in this paper is Dr. Cook
B. Name of some of institutional Affiliations
Dr. Cook is a professor specializing in various discrete fields in sociology, psychology, education, and social policy. He is affiliated to Northwestern University and holds other positions in other academic institutions across the United States. He obtained the Myrdal Prize for science (1982), the prestigious Donald T. Campbell prize for Innovative Methodology (1988) and the Distinguished Research Prize (1997). He is a recipient of the Paul B. Shell award for Lifetime Achievement. His greatest achievements have been the great breakthrough he obtained in the fields of scientific research particularly about the experimental methods and their validity.
C. What does the theorist take to be the ultimate purpose of evaluation?
Advocate for the use of strong methodology in evaluation. In addition, provide reliable data about a program for better society. The data provided should be reliable and its objective would be to provide data that will contribute to a better society. The key rationale behind appraisal is to contribute to an area of open course of action and its programs. This contribution is achieved through proper planning to make certain of the presence of a rationalization for a program and that proper use of resources is achieved. Proper data should be provided to achieve the other objective of evaluation, which is accountability. Evaluation is also aimed at improving the institutional strength (Schwandt, 2005). This is achieved by enhancing and fostering growth of aptitude among the participants in the program and their systems and organizations. The above evaluation purpose is meant for different consumers in the industry. Some meant for the managers, program sponsors, policy makers, and program partner’s etcetera. Many evaluators are of the view that evaluation should concentrate on the evaluation of the program. However, evaluation should concentrate on the optimal aggregate welfare of the society. Causality in liberal scientific theory depict complexity which prompts the scientists to designate values to the variables surrounding the phenomenon.
This means that evaluation should be focused on improving the welfare of the human beings, the world that human beings live in and in a broader sense, even celestial bodies that human beings have started to invade. It is critical to note that prime objective of evaluation is the determination of overall significance, worth, and merit of anything. It is critical for evaluators to approach each evaluation with minimal bias. Evaluators should match the evaluations to needs and requirements but not to the goals of the evaluation. This is deemed as a critical step towards the direction of achieving the primary purpose of evaluation (William, Cook & Campbell, 2002).
D. The Subsidiary purpose:
This concept is concerned with improving the theory of evaluation in pedagogy and knowledge base for quantification of learning. He wrote about the importance of learning on several academic articles. For example, there was one directed at promoting the learning on how to improve qualitative methods as a dominant scientific approach. Qualitative methods should be improved to improve the kind of data that should support a quantitative claim of fact. The consumers of data are policy makers who require this data to make policies of great importance to the country. About the context of educational evaluation of grades and student performance, he was of the opinion that a rather pragmatic approach is the best one. Educational evaluation provides an opportunity to analyze the data provided. The consumer of the data must receive credible data that will meet the purpose of the research. A subsidiary purpose of evaluation can also be referred to as an intradisciplinary evaluation.
According to Cook, Murphy & Hunt (2000), expansive philosophers of evaluation are always ready to use the discipline to identify and solve problems in a broad allay of application. One of the problems that can be solved by the application of interdisciplinary evaluation is the evaluation of different entities that create a discipline. This evaluation incorporates organizations, journals, hypotheses, theories, explanations, taxonomies, data, and methods. Evaluating the infrastructure of disciplines and the structures that define these disciplines enables the evaluators to distinguish between pseudoscience and science. It is also critical to point out that intradisciplinary evaluation acceptance makes preposterous the rationale of science that is value-free.
E. Reliable Data about Program to Making a Causal Claim
To make a causal claim according to Cook entail supplying relevant scientific and holistic description of variables pertinent to the conditions of the claim. Cook was a proponent of the scientific ideal particularly in its sublime psychological and theoretical inadequacies. A reductionist approach is the very crux of Cooks ideal when it comes to the qualifying of a claim based on reproducible data against a stated claim. Causal claims therefore must be supported with elaborate evidence to sustain the quality of the causality.
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In this regard, Cook affirms the notion of heuristic causality, which has been acknowledged by some scientists. Bayesian proposition is in tune with Cooks observation.
A. According to this theorist, what is (should be) the role of the evaluator in “valuing” data?
Evaluators are involved in verifying the validity of data provided for decision-making. Decision makers in the world rely on data they receive from researchers to make their decisions. This data needs to be genuine and credible. Aspects of precision and error margin are thus useful in determining the extent to which data can be ascertained as scientifically sound. The research method used needs to be of the highest standard with regard to human manipulation and capacity. The researcher chooses the paradigm that dictates whether he uses quantitative or qualitative research approach. The choice made is important because its effect will be reflected in the data obtained, which will go a long way in influencing the decision reached by the decision makers.
The researchers also need to consider the consumer of the data before he undertakes research. This will influence the way a research is undertaken to meets the needs of the consumer (Cook, Leviton & Shadish, 1990). The evaluator must analyze the data given. The consumer who is the decision maker relies on the conclusion of the evaluator. The evaluator understands the requirements of credible research and using that knowledge he can make that important decision of approving it. Therefore, the role of the evaluator is very crucial in that the decision maker relies on his judgment. If he provides the wrong judgment then the decision maker will make the wrong judgment. Researchers choose their techniques and methodologies but an evaluator concludes what is good for the consumer.
3. (F). What does this theorist view as the role of those affected by or interested in the evaluation? In what ways do they participate?
The most crucial role and intention of those interested in evaluation is institutionalized civil obligation of civil servants. Those affected by and are interested in the process or mechanisms of evaluation are belligerent factions who become critics. They often question the validity and usefulness of the formalized mechanism of evaluation within institutions. Moreover, such persons or factions could also emerge from dissenting political quarters that intend to merely evaluate political action or social process in their societies (Cook, Coryn & Evergreen, 2010). In rare cases, they exceptionally gifted persons who become rebels of the system after they feel disenfranchised.

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